Printie 3D

3D Printing Services Experts 

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Send 3D Model file to for fast quotes. Confirm your order and 3D printing will start in Same Day.
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0.99 TL

Gram price, Best price, Excellent quality

Why Work with Printie 3D 

0.99 TL Per Gram 
Fast Production
Quality Materials
Very Responsive Support 

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☑️ Lead times from 1 business days
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How It Works


Send CAD files - 3D models - to our engineers will evaluate the project and recommend best material for your project , we will send you price offer by email


3D printing with the best quality materials including but not limited to PLA , ABS , Resins to guarantee customer satisfaction , 3D printing is done same day of order confirmation


We send orders with the best shipping companies to guarantee customer satisfaction and fast delivery

Printie 3D In Numbers

8 Years Experience 
3489 Successful Projects
849 Happy Customers 

Frequently Asked Questions 

You can know the price by sending us the 3D models as attachments in an email to or if the files are big you can use a file transfer service like to send us the files ; our engineers will check the files and will send you price and comments by email ; please always include your mobile number and any special requirements and dimensions of the 3D model in the email so we can help you in the best way possible. 

3D Printing prices is 0.99 TL for each gram , the amount of material consumed is calculated by software.

Shipping costs are not between 18 TL and 45 TL depending on your location.

any file format is accepted , however STL, OBJ format is recommended , how ever , we can accept any file from all known 3D modeling softwares .

Currently we can print a maximum size of 20 cm X 20 cm X 25 cm; however , we can help customers to print bigger shapes into parts .

Currently we are focusing on FDM 3D printing with PLA / ABS materials .

You need to have the 3D model in a 3D format , normally we accept files from all know 3D modeling softwares , Also we can help customers with creating the 3D models with convenient prices.

Normally we print all orders same day we receive them from customers , shipping might take from two to three days depending on customer location .

Normally we print with 0.2mm ( 200 micron ) layer thickness ; how ever we can print on lower or higher layer thickness depending on customer requirements .

Unfortunately no , currently we are focusing on providing 3D printing services only .

Yes , we can provide highly discounted prices for orders with large quantities .

Sultan Selim Mah. Eski Büyükdere Cad. No: 61 A Levent / Istanbul

Pazartesi - Cumartesi: 10AM–4PM
Pazar: Kapalı

    Marmaray rail line has 76.6 km, and the full line opened on 12 March 2019.[299] Until then, buses provide transportation within and between the two-halves of the city, accommodating 2.2 million passenger trips each day.[300] The Metrobus, a form of bus rapid transit, crosses the Bosphorus Bridge, with dedicated lanes leading to its termini.[301] İDO (Istanbul Seabuses) runs a combination of all-passenger ferries and car-and-passenger ferries to ports on both sides of the Bosphorus, as far north as the Black Sea.[302][303] With additional destinations around the Sea of Marmara, İDO runs the largest municipal ferry operation in the world.[304] The city's main cruise ship terminal is the Port of Istanbul in Karaköy, with a capacity of 10,000 passengers per hour.[305] Most visitors enter Istanbul by air, but about half a million foreign tourists enter the city by sea each year.[207] Originally opened in 1873 with a smaller terminal building as the main terminus of the Rumelia (Balkan) Railway of the Ottoman Empire, which connected Istanbul with Vienna, the current Sirkeci Terminal building was constructed between 1888 and 1890, and became the eastern terminus of the Orient Express from Paris.[citation needed] International rail service from Istanbul launched in 1889, with a line between Bucharest and Istanbul's Sirkeci Terminal, which ultimately became famous as the eastern terminus of the Orient Express from Paris.[75] Regular service to Bucharest and Thessaloniki continued until the early 2010s, when the former was interrupted for Marmaray construction and the latter was halted due to economic problems in Greece.[306][307] After Istanbul's Haydarpaşa Terminal opened in 1908, it served as the western terminus of the Baghdad Railway and an extension of the Hejaz Railway; today, neither service is offered directly from Istanbul.[308][309][310] Service to Ankara and other points across Turkey is normally offered by Turkish State Railways, but the construction of Marmaray and the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed line forced the station to close in 2012.[311] New stations to replace both the Haydarpaşa and Sirkeci terminals, and connect the city's disjointed railway networks, are expected to open upon completion of the Marmaray project; until then, Istanbul is without intercity rail service.[311] Private bus companies operate instead.
    In 2017 the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has published a discussion paper on the processes and materials involved in 3D printing, potential implications of this technology for occupational safety and health and avenues for controlling potential hazards.179 Hazards Emissions Emissions from fused filament printers can include a large number of ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).180181182 The toxicity from emissions varies by source material due to differences in size, chemical properties, and quantity of emitted particles.180 Excessive exposure to VOCs can lead to irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headache, loss of coordination, and nausea and some of the chemical emissions of fused filament printers have also been linked to asthma.180183 Based on animal studies, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers sometimes used in fused filament printing can cause pulmonary effects including inflammation, granulomas, and pulmonary fibrosis when at the nanoparticle size.184 A National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study noted particle emissions from a fused filament peaked a few minutes after printing started and returned to baseline levels 100 minutes after printing ended.180 Workers may also inadvertently transport materials outside the workplace on their shoes, garments, and body, which may pose hazards for other members of the public.185Carbon nanoparticle emissions and processes using powder metals are highly combustible and raise the risk of dust explosions.186 At least one case of severe injury was noted from an explosion involved in metal powders used for fused filament printing.187 Other Additional hazards include burns from hot surfaces such as lamps and print head blocks, exposure to laser or ultraviolet radiation, electrical shock, mechanical injury from being struck by moving parts, and noise and ergonomic hazards.188189 Other concerns involve gas and material exposures, in particular nanomaterials, material handling, static electricity, moving parts and pressures.190Hazards to health and safety also exist from post-processing activities done to finish parts after they have been printed.
    In addition, the making of an NFA firearm requires a tax payment and advance approval by ATF.154Attempting to restrict the distribution of gun plans via the Internet has been likened to the futility of preventing the widespread distribution of DeCSS, which enabled DVD ripping.155156157158 After the US government had Defense Distributed take down the plans, they were still widely available via the Pirate Bay and other file sharing sites.159 Downloads of the plans from the UK, Germany, Spain, and Brazil were heavy.160161 Some US legislators have proposed regulations on 3D printers to prevent them from being used for printing guns.162163 3D printing advocates have suggested that such regulations would be futile, could cripple the 3D printing industry, and could infringe on free speech rights, with early pioneer of 3D printing Professor Hod Lipson suggesting that gunpowder could be controlled instead.164165166167168169Internationally, where gun controls are generally stricter than in the United States, some commentators have said the impact may be more strongly felt since alternative firearms are not as easily obtainable.170 Officials in the United Kingdom have noted that producing a 3D printed gun would be illegal under their gun control laws.171 Europol stated that criminals have access to other sources of weapons but noted that as technology improves, the risks of an effect would increase.172173 Aerospace regulation In the United States, the FAA has anticipated a desire to use additive manufacturing techniques and has been considering how best to regulate this process.174 The FAA has jurisdiction over such fabrication because all aircraft parts must be made under FAA production approval or under other FAA regulatory categories.175 In December 2016, the FAA approved the production of a 3D printed fuel nozzle for the GE LEAP engine.176 Aviation attorney Jason Dickstein has suggested that additive manufacturing is merely a production method, and should be regulated like any other production method.177178 He has suggested that the FAA’s focus should be on guidance to explain compliance, rather than on changing the existing rules, and that existing regulations and guidance permit a company “to develop a robust quality system that adequately reflects regulatory needs for quality assurance.”177 Health and safety  It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Health and safety hazards of 3D printing.
    But in the second half of the 20th century, the Asian side experienced major urban growth; the late development of this part of the city led to better infrastructure and tidier urban planning when compared with most other residential areas in the city.[123] Much of the Asian side of the Bosphorus functions as a suburb of the economic and commercial centers in European Istanbul, accounting for a third of the city's population but only a quarter of its employment.[123] As a result of Istanbul's exponential growth in the 20th century, a significant portion of the city is composed of gecekondus (literally "built overnight"), referring to illegally constructed squatter buildings.[124] At present, some gecekondu areas are being gradually demolished and replaced by modern mass-housing compounds.[125] Moreover, large scale gentrification and urban renewal projects have been taking place,[126] such as the one in Tarlabaşı;[127] some of these projects, like the one in Sulukule, have faced criticism.[128] The Turkish government also has ambitious plans for an expansion of the city west and northwards on the European side in conjunction with plans for a third airport; the new parts of the city will include four different settlements with specified urban functions, housing 1.5 million people.[129] Istanbul does not have a primary urban park, but it has several green areas.
    In 1930 the city's name was officially changed to Istanbul, an appellation Greek speakers used since the eleventh century to colloquially refer to the city.[12] Over 13.4 million foreign visitors came to Istanbul in 2018, eight years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth-most popular tourist destination.[13] As an alpha world city,[14] Istanbul is home to several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and hosts the headquarters of numerous Turkish companies, accounting for more than thirty percent of the country's economy.[15][16] Contents 1 Toponymy 2 History 2.1 Rise and fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire 2.2 Ottoman Empire and Turkish Republic eras 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 4 Cityscape 4.1 Architecture 5 Administration 6 Demographics 6.1 Religious and ethnic groups 7 Politics 8 Economy 9 Culture 9.1 Leisure and entertainment 10 Sports 11 Media 12 Education 13 Public services 14 Transportation 14.1 Air pollution from traffic 15 Sister and twin cities 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 18.1 Bibliography 19 External links Toponymy Main article: Names of Istanbul The first known name of the city is Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion), the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE.[17] The name is thought to be derived from a personal name, Byzas.
    Modern art museums, including İstanbul Modern, the Pera Museum, Sakıp Sabancı Museum and SantralIstanbul, opened in the 2000s to complement the exhibition spaces and auction houses that have already contributed to the cosmopolitan nature of the city.[206] These museums have yet to attain the popularity of older museums on the historic peninsula, including the Istanbul Archaeology Museums, which ushered in the era of modern museums in Turkey, and the Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum.[207][200] The first film screening in Turkey was at Yıldız Palace in 1896, a year after the technology publicly debuted in Paris.[208] Movie theaters rapidly cropped up in Beyoğlu, with the greatest concentration of theaters being along the street now known as İstiklal Avenue.[209] Istanbul also became the heart of Turkey's nascent film industry, although Turkish films were not consistently developed until the 1950s.[210] Since then, Istanbul has been the most popular location to film Turkish dramas and comedies.[211] The Turkish film industry ramped up in the second half of the century, and with Uzak (2002) and My Father and My Son (2005), both filmed in Istanbul, the nation's movies began to see substantial international success.[212] Istanbul and its picturesque skyline have also served as a backdrop for several foreign films, including From Russia with Love (1963), Topkapi (1964), The World Is Not Enough (1999), and Mission Istaanbul (2008).[213] Coinciding with this cultural reemergence was the establishment of the Istanbul Festival, which began showcasing a variety of art from Turkey and around the world in 1973.
    Religious foundations were established to fund the construction of ornate imperial mosques, often adjoined by schools, hospitals, and public baths.[69] The Ottoman Dynasty claimed the status of caliphate in 1517, with Constantinople remaining the capital of this last caliphate for four centuries.[11] Suleiman the Magnificent's reign from 1520 to 1566 was a period of especially great artistic and architectural achievement; chief architect Mimar Sinan designed several iconic buildings in the city, while Ottoman arts of ceramics, stained glass, calligraphy, and miniature flourished.[71] The population of Constantinople was 570,000 by the end of the 18th century.[72] A period of rebellion at the start of the 19th century led to the rise of the progressive Sultan Mahmud II and eventually to the Tanzimat period, which produced political reforms and allowed new technology to be introduced to the city.[73] Bridges across the Golden Horn were constructed during this period,[74] and Constantinople was connected to the rest of the European railway network in the 1880s.[75] Modern facilities, such as a water supply network, electricity, telephones, and trams, were gradually introduced to Constantinople over the following decades, although later than to other European cities.[76] The modernization efforts were not enough to forestall the decline of the Ottoman Empire.[citation needed] Two aerial photos showing the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, taken from a German zeppelin on 19 March 1918 Sultan Abdul Hamid II was deposed with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 and the Ottoman Parliament, closed since 14 February 1878, was reopened 30 years later on 23 July 1908, which marked the beginning of the Second Constitutional Era.[77] A series of wars in the early 20th century, such as the Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912) and the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), plagued the ailing empire's capital and resulted in the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, which brought the regime of the Three Pashas.[78] The Ottoman Empire joined World War I (1914–1918) on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated.
    Istanbul's first water supply systems date back to the city's early history, when aqueducts (such as the Valens Aqueduct) deposited the water in the city's numerous cisterns.[267] At the behest of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Kırkçeşme water supply network was constructed; by 1563, the network provided 4,200 cubic meters (150,000 cu ft) of water to 158 sites each day.[267] In later years, in response to increasing public demand, water from various springs was channeled to public fountains, like the Fountain of Ahmed III, by means of supply lines.[268] Today, Istanbul has a chlorinated and filtered water supply and a sewage treatment system managed by the Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration (İstanbul Su ve Kanalizasyon İdaresi, İSKİ).[269] The Silahtarağa Power Station, a coal-fired power plant along the Golden Horn, was the sole source of Istanbul's electricity between 1914, when its first engine room was completed, and 1952.[270] Following the founding of the Turkish Republic, the plant underwent renovations to accommodate the city's increasing demand; its capacity grew from 23 megawatts in 1923 to a peak of 120 megawatts in 1956.[270][271] Capacity declined until the power station reached the end of its economic life and shut down in 1983.[270] The state-run Turkish Electrical Authority (TEK) briefly—between its founding in 1970 and 1984—held a monopoly on the generation and distribution of electricity, but now the authority—since split between the Turkish Electricity Generation Transmission Company (TEAŞ) and the Turkish Electricity Distribution Company (TEDAŞ)—competes with private electric utilities.[271] An arched neoclassical building with hanging banners, with a yellow vehicle parked in front The Istanbul Grand Post Office dates back to 1909.[272] The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was established in 1840 and the first post office, the Imperial Post Office, opened near the courtyard of Yeni Mosque.
    Istanbul has more than fifty museums, with Topkapı Palace, the most visited museum in the city, bringing in more than $30 million in revenue each year.[15] Culture Main article: Culture of Istanbul The façade of a masonry building, with four Greek adorning its entrance, under a clear blue sky The Istanbul Archaeology Museums, founded by Osman Hamdi Bey in 1891, form Turkey's oldest modern museum.[200] Pera Museum in Beyoğlu Istanbul was historically known as a cultural hub, but its cultural scene stagnated after the Turkish Republic shifted its focus toward Ankara.[201] The new national government established programs that served to orient Turks toward musical traditions, especially those originating in Europe, but musical institutions and visits by foreign classical artists were primarily centered in the new capital.[202] Much of Turkey's cultural scene had its roots in Istanbul, and by the 1980s and 1990s Istanbul reemerged globally as a city whose cultural significance is not solely based on its past glory.[203] By the end of the 19th century, Istanbul had established itself as a regional artistic center, with Turkish, European, and Middle Eastern artists flocking to the city.
    For the purpose of parliamentary elections, Istanbul is divided into three electoral districts; two on the European side and one on the Asian side, electing 28, 35 and 35 MPs respectively.[citation needed] Economy Main article: Economy of Istanbul Providing the only sea route to the Black Sea, the Bosphorus is the world's busiest waterway that is used for international navigation.[15] Ranking 11th by GDP among the world's urban areas in 2018, Istanbul is responsible for 30 percent[190] of the country's industrial output, 31 percent[190] of GDP, and 47 percent of tax revenues.[190] PPP-adjusted gross domestic product stood at US$537.507 billion in 2018,[5] with manufacturing and services accounting for 36 percent and 60 percent of the economic output respectively.[190] Istanbul's productivity is 110 percent higher than the national average.[190] Trade is economically important, accounting for 30 percent of the economic output in the city.[15] In 2019, companies based in Istanbul produced exports worth $83.66 billion and received imports totaling $128.34 billion; these figures were equivalent to 47 percent and 61 percent, respectively, of the national totals.[191] Istanbul, which straddles the strait Bosporus, houses international ports that link Asia and Europe.
    Pera (now Beyoğlu) was the first area of the city to have its own director and council, with members instead being longtime residents of the neighborhood.[145] Laws enacted after the Ottoman constitution of 1876 aimed to expand this structure across the city, imitating the twenty arrondissements of Paris, but they were not fully implemented until 1908, when the city was declared a province with nine constituent districts.[146][147] This system continued beyond the founding of the Turkish Republic, with the province renamed a belediye (municipality), but the municipality was disbanded in 1957.[89][148] Statue of Atatürk in Büyükada, the largest of the Prince Islands to the southeast of Istanbul, which collectively form the Adalar (Isles) district of Istanbul Province Small settlements adjacent to major population centers in Turkey, including Istanbul, were merged into their respective primary cities during the early 1980s, resulting in metropolitan municipalities.[149][150] The main decision-making body of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality is the Municipal Council, with members drawn from district councils.
    Turkey, with Istanbul pinpointed at the northwest along a thin strip of land bounded by waterTurkey, with Istanbul pinpointed at the northwest along a thin strip of land bounded by waterIstanbul Location within Turkey Show map of Turkey Show map of Europe Show map of Asia Show map of Earth Show all Coordinates: 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″ECoordinates: 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E Country Turkey Region Marmara Province Istanbul Provincial seat[a] Cağaloğlu, Fatih Districts 39 Government • Type Mayor–council government • Body Municipal Council of Istanbul • Mayor Ekrem İmamoğlu (CHP) • Governor Ali Yerlikaya Area[1][2][b] • Urban 2,576.85 km2 (994.93 sq mi) • Metro 5,343.22 km2 (2,063.03 sq mi) Highest elevation[3] 537 m (1,762 ft) Population (31 December 2019)[4] • Megacity 15,519,267 • Rank 1st in Turkey • Urban 15,214,177 • Urban density 5,904/km2 (15,290/sq mi) • Metro density 2,904/km2 (7,520/sq mi) Demonym(s) Istanbulite (Turkish: İstanbullu) Time zone UTC+3 (TRT) Postal code 34000 to 34990 Area code(s) 212 (European side) 216 (Asian side) Vehicle registration 34 GDP (PPP) 2018[5] - Total US$ 537,507 billion - Per capita US$ 35,779 HDI (2018) 0.828[6] (very high) · 3rd GeoTLD .ist, .istanbul Website UNESCO World Heritage Site Official name Historic Areas of Istanbul Criteria Cultural: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv) Reference 356bis Inscription 1985 (9th session) Extensions 2017 Area 765.5 ha (1,892 acres) Istanbul (/ˌɪstænˈbʊl/ ISS-tan-BUUL,[7][8] also US: /ˈɪstænbʊl/ ISS-tan-buul; Turkish: İstanbul [isˈtanbuɫ] (About this soundlisten)), formerly Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center.
    Fares across modes are integrated, using the contactless Istanbulkart, introduced in 2009, or the older Akbil electronic ticket device.[291] Trams in Istanbul date back to 1872, when they were horse-drawn, but even the first electrified trams were decommissioned in the 1960s.[292] Operated by Istanbul Electricity, Tramway, and Tunnel General Management (İETT), trams slowly returned to the city in the 1990s with the introduction of a nostalgic route and a faster modern tram line, which now carries 265,000 passengers each day.[292][293] The Tünel opened in 1875 as the world's second-oldest subterranean rail line (after London's Metropolitan Railway).[292] It still carries passengers between Karaköy and İstiklal Avenue along a steep 573-meter (1,880 ft) track; a more modern funicular between Taksim Square and Kabataş began running in 2006.[294][295] Boğaziçi University station of the Istanbul Metro Marmaray commuter rail at Ayrılıkçeşmesi station The Istanbul Metro comprises five lines (the M1, M2, M3 and M6 on the European side, and the M4 and M5 on the Asian side) with several other lines (the M7, M8, M9 and M11) and extensions under construction.[296][297] The two sides of Istanbul's metro are connected under the Bosphorus by the Marmaray tunnel, inaugurated in 2013 as the first rail connection between Thrace and Anatolia, having 13.5 km length.[298] The Marmaray tunnel together with the suburban railways lines along the Sea of Marmara, is part of intercontinental commuter rail line in Istanbul, from Halkalı on the European side to Gebze on the Asian side.
    Borsa Istanbul was originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange in 1866.[195] In 1995, keeping up with the financial trends, Borsa Istanbul has moved its headquarters from Bankalar Caddesi—traditionally the financial center of the Ottoman Empire and Turkey[195]—to the district of Maslak, which hosts the headquarters of the majority of Turkish banks.[196] By 2022,[197] Borsa Istanbul is scheduled to move to a new planned district in Ataşehir, which will host the headquarters of Turkish banks, including the Central Bank that is currently headquartered in Ankara.[198] Whereas 2.4 million foreigners visited the city in 2000,[citation needed] there were 13.4 million foreign tourists in 2018, making Istanbul the world's fifth most-visited city.[199] Istanbul is, after Antalya, Turkey's second-largest international gateway, receiving a quarter of the nation's foreign tourists.
    By 1876, the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the Ottoman Empire had been established.[273] Sultan Abdülmecid I issued Samuel Morse his first official honor for the telegraph in 1847, and construction of the first telegraph line—between Istanbul and Edirne—finished in time to announce the end of the Crimean War in 1856.[274] A nascent telephone system began to emerge in Istanbul in 1881 and after the first manual telephone exchange became operational in Istanbul in 1909, the Ministry of Post and Telegraph became the Ministry of Post, Telegraph, and Telephone.[273][275] GSM cellular networks arrived in Turkey in 1994, with Istanbul among the first cities to receive the service.[276] Today, mobile and landline service is provided by private companies, after Türk Telekom, which split from the Ministry of Post, Telegraph, and Telephone in 1995, was privatized in 2005.[273][276] Postal services remain under the purview of what is now the Post and Telegraph Organization (retaining the acronym PTT).[273] In 2000, Istanbul had 137 hospitals, of which 100 were private.[277][needs update] Turkish citizens are entitled to subsidized healthcare in the nation's state-run hospitals.[252] As public hospitals tend to be overcrowded or otherwise slow, private hospitals are preferable for those who can afford them.
    As opposed to traditional manufacturing, for instance, in which pieces are cut from larger blocks of material, additive manufacturing creates products layer-by-layer and prints only relevant parts, wasting much less material and thus wasting less energy in producing the raw materials needed.[214] By making only the bare structural necessities of products, additive manufacturing also could make a profound contribution to lightweighting, reducing the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of vehicles and other forms of transportation.[215] A case study on an airplane component made using additive manufacturing, for example, found that the component’s use saves 63% of relevant energy and carbon dioxide emissions over the course of the product’s lifetime.[216] In addition, previous life-cycle assessment of additive manufacturing has estimated that adopting the technology could further lower carbon dioxide emissions since 3D printing creates localized production, and products would not need to be transported long distances to reach their final destination.[217]Continuing to adopt additive manufacturing does pose some environmental downsides, however.
    Due to its initial status as Turkey's only club, Beşiktaş occasionally represented the Ottoman Empire and Turkish Republic in international sports competitions, earning the right to place the Turkish flag inside its team logo.[228] Galatasaray SK and Fenerbahçe SK have fared better in international competitions and have won more Süper Lig titles, at 22 and 19 times, respectively.[229][230][231] Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe have a long-standing rivalry, with Galatasaray based in the European part and Fenerbahçe based in the Anatolian part of the city.[230] Istanbul has seven basketball teams—Anadolu Efes, Beşiktaş, Darüşşafaka, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray, İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor and Büyükçekmece—that play in the premier-level Turkish Basketball Super League.[232] Many of Istanbul's sports facilities have been built or upgraded since 2000 to bolster the city's bids for the Summer Olympic Games.
    In winter some parts of the province average freezing or below at night.[citation needed] Istanbul's persistently high humidity reaches 80 percent most mornings.[103] Because of this, fog is very common, although more so in northern parts of the city and away from the city center.[100] Dense fog disrupts transportation in the region, including on the Bosphorus, and is common during the autumn and winter months when the humidity remains high into the afternoon.[104][105][106] The humid conditions and the fog tend to dissipate by midday during the summer months, but the lingering humidity exacerbates the moderately high summer temperatures.[103][107] During these summer months, high temperatures average around 29 °C (84 °F) and rainfall is uncommon; there are only about fifteen days with measurable precipitation between June and August.[108] The summer months also have the highest concentration of thunderstorms.[109] Winter is colder in Istanbul than in most other cities around the Mediterranean Basin, with low temperatures averaging 1–4 °C (34–39 °F).[108] Lake-effect snow from the Black Sea is common, although difficult to forecast, with the potential to be heavy and—as with the fog—disruptive to the city's infrastructure.[110] Spring and autumn are mild, but often wet and unpredictable; chilly winds from the northwest and warm gusts from the south—sometimes in the same day—tend to cause fluctuations in temperature.[107][111] Overall, Istanbul has an annual average of 130 days with significant precipitation, which amounts to 810 millimeters (31.9 in) per year.[108][112] The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the city center on the Marmara coast are 40.5 °C (105 °F) and −16.1 °C (3 °F).
    This sudden, sharp rise in the city's population caused a large demand for housing, and many previously outlying villages and forests became engulfed into the metropolitan area of Istanbul.[87] A panoramic view of Ottoman era Istanbul from Galata Tower in the 19th century (image with notes) Geography Further information: Geography of Turkey and Geology of Turkey Satellite image showing a thin piece of land, densely populated on the south, bisected by a waterway Satellite view of Istanbul and the Bosphorus strait Istanbul is in north-western Turkey within the Marmara Region on a total area of 5,343 square kilometers (2,063 sq mi).[b] The Bosphorus, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea, divides the city into a European, Thracian side—comprising the historic and economic centers—and an Asian, Anatolian side.
    Furthermore, social and economic development is being advanced through the creation of local production economies.[89]Others have suggested that as more and more 3D printers start to enter people’s homes, the conventional relationship between the home and the workplace might get further eroded.[199] Likewise, it has also been suggested that, as it becomes easier for businesses to transmit designs for new objects around the globe, so the need for high-speed freight services might also become less.[200] Finally, given the ease with which certain objects can now be replicated, it remains to be seen whether changes will be made to current copyright legislation so as to protect intellectual property rights with the new technology widely available.As 3D printers became more accessible to consumers, online social platforms have developed to support the community.[201] This includes websites that allow users to access information such as how to build a 3D printer, as well as social forums that discuss how to improve 3D print quality and discuss 3D printing news, as well as social media websites that are dedicated to share 3D models.[202][203][204] RepRap is a wiki based website that was created to hold all information on 3d printing, and has developed into a community that aims to bring 3D printing to everyone.
    Modern scholars have also hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement.[18] After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became widely known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις" (Konstantinoúpolis), means the "City of Constantine".[17] Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul.[19][20] Kostantiniyye (Ottoman Turkish: قسطنطينيه ), Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah (meaning "the Protected Location of Constantinople") and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule.[21] The name İstanbul (Turkish pronunciation: [isˈtanbuɫ] (About this soundlisten), colloquially [ɯsˈtambuɫ]) is commonly held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν" (pronounced [is tim ˈbolin]), which means "to the city"[22] and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks.
    There are 52 universities in Istanbul, 41 of which are private.[15] The oldest of the universities, Istanbul University, was founded in 1453 and later established law and medical schools in the 19th century.[15] Opened in 1844 as the Civil Engineering School, Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest university dedicated entirely to engineering.[15] Because private universities were officially outlawed in Turkey before the 1982 amendment to the constitution, there were no private universities in the city until 1992, when Koç University was founded.[15] View of Kuleli Military High School (1845–2016) In 2007, there were about 4,350 schools, about half of which were primary schools; on average, each school had 688 students.[needs update] In recent years, Istanbul's educational system has expanded substantially; from 2000 to 2007, the number of classrooms and teachers nearly doubled and the number of students increased by more than 60 percent.[259] Galatasaray High School, established in 1481 as the Galata Palace Imperial School, is the oldest high school in Istanbul and the second-oldest educational institution in the city.
    It’s important to see it as a cluster of diverse industries with a myriad of different applications.A few examples: • – consumer products (eyewear, footwear, design, furniture) • – industrial products (manufacturing tools, prototypes, functional end-use parts) • – dental products • – prosthetics • – architectural scale models & maquettes • – reconstructing fossils • – replicating ancient artefacts • – reconstructing evidence in forensic pathology • – movie props • Testing A Lamborghini With 3D Printed PETG Intake Stack Prototypes • How 3D Printing Is Changing Auto Manufacturing • 3D Printing Spare Parts On-Demand • How 3D Printed Sports Equipment Is Changing the Game • 3 Ways 3D Printing is Revolutionizing Digital Dentistry • 3 Ways The Furniture Industry Benefits from 3D Printing • 3D Printing & Embedded Electronics – How AM Enables Smarter Objects • 3D Printed Props – How 3D Printing is Used in Film & TV • Testing A Lamborghini With 3D Printed PETG Intake Stack Prototypes • How 3D Printing Is Changing Auto Manufacturing • 3D Printing Spare Parts On-Demand • How 3D Printed Sports Equipment Is Changing the Game • 3 Ways 3D Printing is Revolutionizing Digital Dentistry • 3 Ways The Furniture Industry Benefits from 3D Printing Rapid Prototyping & Rapid ManufacturingCompanies have used 3D printers in their design process to create prototypes since the late seventies.
    As the eastern capital of the empire, the city was named Nova Roma; most called it Constantinople, a name that persisted into the 20th century.[47] On 11 May 330, Constantinople was proclaimed the capital of the Roman Empire, which was later permanently divided between the two sons of Theodosius I upon his death on 17 January 395, when the city became the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.[48] The establishment of Constantinople was one of Constantine's most lasting accomplishments, shifting Roman power eastward as the city became a center of Greek culture and Christianity.[48][49] Numerous churches were built across the city, including Hagia Sophia which was built during the reign of Justinian the Great and remained the world's largest cathedral for a thousand years.[50] Constantine also undertook a major renovation and expansion of the Hippodrome of Constantinople; accommodating tens of thousands of spectators, the hippodrome became central to civic life and, in the 5th and 6th centuries, the center of episodes of unrest, including the Nika riots.[51][52] Constantinople's location also ensured its existence would stand the test of time; for many centuries, its walls and seafront protected Europe against invaders from the east and the advance of Islam.[49] During most of the Middle Ages, the latter part of the Byzantine era, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city on the European continent and at times the largest in the world.[53][54] Constantinople began to decline continuously after the end of the reign of Basil II in 1025.
    Sephardic Jews settled in the city after their expulsion from Spain and Portugal in 1492 and 1497.[184] Sympathetic to the plight of Sephardic Jews, Bayezid II sent out the Ottoman Navy under the command of admiral Kemal Reis to Spain in 1492 in order to evacuate them safely to Ottoman lands.[184] In marked contrast to Jews in Europe, Ottoman Jews were allowed to work in any profession.[185] Ottoman Jews in Istanbul excelled in commerce, trade[186] and came to particularly dominate the medical profession.[185] By 1711, using the printing press, books came to be published in Spanish and Ladino, Yiddish, and Hebrew.[187] In large part due to emigration to Israel, the Jewish population in the city dropped from 100,000 in 1950[188] to 25,000 in 2020.
    The settlers built an acropolis adjacent to the Golden Horn on the site of the early Thracian settlements, fueling the nascent city's economy.[40] The city experienced a brief period of Persian rule at the turn of the 5th century BCE, but the Greeks recaptured it during the Greco-Persian Wars.[41] Byzantium then continued as part of the Athenian League and its successor, the Second Athenian League, before gaining independence in 355 BCE.[42] Long allied with the Romans, Byzantium officially became a part of the Roman Empire in 73 CE.[43] Byzantium's decision to side with the Roman usurper Pescennius Niger against Emperor Septimius Severus cost it dearly; by the time it surrendered at the end of 195 CE, two years of siege had left the city devastated.[44] Five years later, Severus began to rebuild Byzantium, and the city regained—and, by some accounts, surpassed—its previous prosperity.[45] Rise and fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire Main article: Constantinople A reddish building topped by a large dome and surrounded by smaller domes and four towers Originally a church, later a mosque, the 6th-century Hagia Sophia (532–537) by Byzantine emperor Justinian the Great was the largest cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the completion of the Seville Cathedral (1507) in Spain.
    In 2011, as a workaround solution, the then Prime Minister Erdoğan presented Canal Istanbul, a "mad project," to open a new strait between the Black and Marmara seas.[193] While the project was still on Turkey’s agenda in 2020, there has not been a clear date set for it.[15] Shipping is a significant part of the city’s economy, with 73.9 percent of exports and 92.7 percent of imports in 2018 executed by sea.[15] Istanbul has three major shipping ports—the Port of Haydarpaşa, the Port of Ambarlı, and the Port of Zeytinburnu—as well as several smaller ports and oil terminals along the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara.[15] Haydarpaşa, at the southeastern end of the Bosporus, was Istanbul's largest port until the early 2000s.[194] Since then operations were shifted to Ambarlı, with plans to convert the Haydarpaşa port into a tourism complex.[15] In 2019, Ambarlı, on the western edge of the urban center, had an annual capacity of 3,104,882 TEUs, making it the third-largest cargo terminal in the Mediterranean basin.[194] Istanbul has been an international banking hub since the 1980s,[15] and is home to the only stock exchange in Turkey.
    Additive manufacturing has not yet reached its theoretical material efficiency potential of 97%, but it may get closer as the technology continues to increase productivity.[218] What is 3D Printing?TweetLinkedInShareReddit3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive processes.
    It never returned to being the world's largest, but remained Europe's largest city from 1500 to 1750, when it was surpassed by London.[163] The Turkish Statistical Institute estimates that the population of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality was 15,519,267 at the end of 2019, hosting 19 percent of the country's population.[164] 64.4% of the residents live on the European side and 35.6% on the Asian side.[164] Istanbul ranks as the world's 7th-largest city proper and the largest urban agglomerations in Europe.[165][166] The city's annual population growth of 1.5 percent ranks as one of the highest among the seventy-eight largest metropolises in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
    The most recent of these is the 13,800-seat Ülker Sports Arena, which opened in 2012 as the home court of Fenerbahçe's basketball teams.[242] Despite the construction boom, five bids for the Summer Olympics—in 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2020—and national bids for UEFA Euro 2012 and UEFA Euro 2016 have ended unsuccessfully.[243] The TVF Burhan Felek Sport Hall is one of the major volleyball arenas in the city and hosts clubs such as Eczacıbaşı VitrA, Vakıfbank SK, and Fenerbahçe who have won numerous European and World Championship titles.[citation needed] Between 2005 and 2011, Istanbul Park racing circuit hosted the annual Formula One Turkish Grand Prix.[244] Istanbul Park was also a venue of the World Touring Car Championship and the European Le Mans Series in 2005 and 2006, but the track has not seen either of these competitions since then.[245][246] It also hosted the Turkish Motorcycle Grand Prix between 2005 and 2007.
    The Treaty of Lausanne was signed on 24 July 1923, and the occupation of Constantinople ended with the departure of the last forces of the Allies from the city on 4 October 1923.[81] Turkish forces of the Ankara government, commanded by Şükrü Naili Pasha (3rd Corps), entered the city with a ceremony on 6 October 1923, which has been marked as the Liberation Day of Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul'un Kurtuluşu) and is commemorated every year on its anniversary.[81] On 29 October 1923 the Grand National Assembly of Turkey declared the establishment of the Turkish Republic, with Ankara as its capital.
    Liquid additive manufacturing (LAM) is a 3D printing technique which deposits a liquid or high viscose material (e.g. Liquid Silicone Rubber) onto a build surface to create an object which then is vulcanised using heat to harden the object.838485 The process was originally created by Adrian Bowyer and was then built upon by German RepRap.838687 Applications Main article: Applications of 3D printing The Audi RSQ was made with rapid prototyping industrial KUKA robots.
    Tentzeris demonstrate the first multi-material, vertically integrated printed electronics additive manufacturing platform (VIPRE) which enabled 3D printing of functional electronics operating up to 40 GHz.31The term “3D printing” originally referred to a process that deposits a binder material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads layer by layer.
    Future applications for 3D printing might include creating open-source scientific equipment.142143In the last several years 3D printing has been intensively used by in the cultural heritage field for preservation, restoration and dissemination purposes.144 Many Europeans and North American Museums have purchased 3D printers and actively recreate missing pieces of their relics.145 The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the British Museum have started using their 3D printers to create museum souvenirs that are available in the museum shops.146 Other museums, like the National Museum of Military History and Varna Historical Museum, have gone further and sell through the online platform Threeding digital models of their artifacts, created using Artec 3D scanners, in 3D printing friendly file format, which everyone can 3D print at home.
    Darüşşafaka begins instruction with the fourth grade, providing instruction in English and, starting in sixth grade, a second foreign language—German or French.[264][better source needed][failed verification] Other prominent high schools in the city include Istanbul Lisesi (founded in 1884), Kabataş Erkek Lisesi (founded in 1908)[265] and Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesi (founded in 1955).[266] Public services Main article: Utilities in Istanbul Further information: Telecommunications in Turkey and Health care in Turkey A brick factory stands in front of a park, with open green space, a reflecting pool, and benches The Silahtarağa Power Station, now the art museum SantralIstanbul, was Istanbul's sole source of power between 1914 and 1952.
    The Genoese fortifications in Galata were largely demolished in the 19th century, leaving only the Galata Tower, to make way for the northward expansion of the city.[119] Galata (Karaköy) is today a quarter within the Beyoğlu (Pera) district, which forms Istanbul's commercial and entertainment center and includes İstiklal Avenue and Taksim Square.[120] Dolmabahçe Palace, the seat of government during the late Ottoman period, is in the Beşiktaş district on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait, to the north of Beyoğlu.
    A 3D selfie in 1:20 scale printed using gypsum-based printing A 3D printed jet engine model 3D printed enamelled pottery 3D printed sculpture of an Egyptian Pharaoh shown at Threeding In the current scenario, 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing has been used in manufacturing, medical, industry and sociocultural sectors which facilitate 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing to become successful commercial technology.88 More recently, 3D printing has also been used in the humanitarian and development sector to produce a range of medical items, prosthetics, spares and repairs.
    Finishing Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, greater accuracy can be achieved by printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and then removing material using a higher-resolution subtractive process.44The layered structure of all Additive Manufacturing processes leads inevitably to a stair-stepping effect on part surfaces which are curved or tilted in respect to the building platform.
    Despite efforts to make Ankara Turkey's cultural heart, Istanbul had the country's primary institution of art until the 1970s.[204] When additional universities and art journals were founded in Istanbul during the 1980s, artists formerly based in Ankara moved in.[205] Beyoğlu has been transformed into the artistic center of the city, with young artists and older Turkish artists formerly residing abroad finding footing there.
    He demanded that five thousand households needed to be transferred to Constantinople by September.[64] From all over the Islamic empire, prisoners of war and deported people were sent to the city: these people were called "Sürgün" in Turkish (Greek: σουργούνιδες).[65] Many people escaped again from the city, and there were several outbreaks of plague, so that in 1459 Mehmed allowed the deported Greeks to come back to the city.[66] He also invited people from all over Europe to his capital, creating a cosmopolitan society that persisted through much of the Ottoman period.[67] Plague continued to be essentially endemic in Constantinople for the rest of the century, as it had been from 1520, with a few years of respite between 1529 and 1533, 1549 and 1552, and from 1567 to 1570; epidemics originating in the West and in the Hejaz and southern Russia.[68] Population growth in Anatolia allowed Constantinople to replace its losses and maintain its population of around 500,000 inhabitants down to 1800.
    Advocates of additive manufacturing also predict that this arc of technological development will counter globalization, as end users will do much of their own manufacturing rather than engage in trade to buy products from other people and corporations.[10] The real integration of the newer additive technologies into commercial production, however, is more a matter of complementing traditional subtractive methods rather than displacing them entirely.[195]The futurologist Jeremy Rifkin[196] claimed that 3D printing signals the beginning of a third industrial revolution,[197] succeeding the production line assembly that dominated manufacturing starting in the late 19th century.
    These websites have allowed greater social interaction between users, creating communities dedicated to 3D printing.Some call attention to the conjunction of Commons-based peer production with 3D printing and other low-cost manufacturing techniques.[205][206][207] The self-reinforced fantasy of a system of eternal growth can be overcome with the development of economies of scope, and here, society can play an important role contributing to the raising of the whole productive structure to a higher plateau of more sustainable and customized productivity.[205] Further, it is true that many issues, problems, and threats arise due to the democratization of the means of production, and especially regarding the physical ones.[205] For instance, the recyclability of advanced nanomaterials is still questioned; weapons manufacturing could become easier; not to mention the implications for counterfeiting[208] and on intellectual property.[209] It might be maintained that in contrast to the industrial paradigm whose competitive dynamics were about economies of scale, Commons-based peer production 3D printing could develop economies of scope.
    The term 3D printing still referred only to the polymer technologies in most minds, and the term AM was more likely to be used in metalworking and end use part production contexts than among polymer, ink-jet, or stereo lithography enthusiasts.By early 2010s, the terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing evolved senses in which they were alternate umbrella terms for additive technologies, one being used in popular language by consumer-maker communities and the media, and the other used more formally by industrial end-use part producers, machine manufacturers, and global technical standards organizations.
    From 1926 the post office only accepted Istanbul; it appeared more Turkish and was used by most Turks.[84][page needed] A 1942 wealth tax assessed mainly on non-Muslims led to the transfer or liquidation of many businesses owned by religious minorities.[85] From the late 1940s and early 1950s, Istanbul underwent great structural change, as new public squares, boulevards, and avenues were constructed throughout the city, sometimes at the expense of historical buildings.[86] The population of Istanbul began to rapidly increase in the 1970s, as people from Anatolia migrated to the city to find employment in the many new factories that were built on the outskirts of the sprawling metropolis.
    Lining both the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus are the historic yalıs, luxurious chalet mansions built by Ottoman aristocrats and elites as summer homes.[121] Farther inland, outside the city's inner ring road, are Levent and Maslak, Istanbul's main business districts.[122] Two- and three-story colored houses with docks and balconies, built directly on the edge of the water Originally outside the city, yalı residences along the Bosphorus are now homes in some of Istanbul's elite neighborhoods.
    3D printing A three-dimensional printer The 3D printing process builds a three-dimensional object from a computer-aided design (CAD) model, usually by successively adding material layer by layer, which is why it is also called additive manufacturing.
    The left-wing pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) is the city's third largest political force due to a substantial number of Kurdish people migrating from south-eastern Turkey.[citation needed] Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality building in the Fatih district More recently, Istanbul and many of Turkey's metropolitan cities are following a trend away from the government and their right-wing ideology.
    (May 2020) Main article: Religion in Istanbul See also: Assyrians in Turkey, Kurds in Turkey, Bosniaks in Turkey, Greeks in Turkey, Armenians in Turkey, Jews in Turkey, and Albanians in Turkey Istanbul has been a cosmopolitan city throughout much of its history, but it has become more homogenized since the end of the Ottoman Empire.
    Environmentalist groups worry that the third bridge will endanger the remaining green areas to the north of Istanbul.[288][289] Apart from the three Bosphorus Bridges, the dual-deck, 14.6-kilometer (9.1 mi) Eurasia Tunnel (which entered service on 20 December 2016) under the Bosphorus strait also provides road crossings for motor vehicles between the Asian and European sides of Turkey.[290] Istanbul's nostalgic and modern tram systems Istanbul's local public transportation system is a network of commuter trains, trams, funiculars, metro lines, buses, bus rapid transit, and ferries.
    The people of Istanbul remain concerned that an even more catastrophic seismic event may be in the city's near future, as thousands of structures recently built to accommodate Istanbul's rapidly increasing population may not have been constructed properly.[94] Seismologists say the risk of a 7.6-magnitude or greater earthquake striking Istanbul by 2030 is more than 60 percent.[95][96] Climate Skyscrapers, both near and far, soar above a dense layer of fog that keeps the ground hidden from view.
    In English the stress is on the first or last syllable, but in Turkish it is on the second syllable (tan).[24] A person from the city is an İstanbullu (plural: İstanbullular), although Istanbulite is used in English.[25] History Main article: History of Istanbul See also: Timeline of Istanbul history This huge keystone found in Çemberlitaş, Fatih, might have belonged to a triumphal arch at the Forum of Constantine; the forum was built by Constantine I in the quarter of modern-day Çemberlitaş.
    2000s Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printing process patents expired in 2009.26 2010s As the various additive processes matured, it became clear that soon metal removal would no longer be the only metalworking process done through a tool or head moving through a 3D work envelope, transforming a mass of raw material into a desired shape layer by layer.
    Built by sultans Abdülmecid and Abdülaziz, the 19th-century Dolmabahçe, Çırağan and Beylerbeyi palaces on the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus strait were designed by members of the Armenian Balyan family of Ottoman court architects.[134] Istanbul is primarily known for its Byzantine and Ottoman architecture, but its buildings reflect the various peoples and empires that have previously ruled the city.
    The powder fed directed energy process is similar to Selective Laser Sintering, but the metal powder is applied only where material is being added to the part at that moment.7475As of December 2017, additive manufacturing systems were on the market that ranged from $99 to $500,000 in price and were employed in industries including aerospace, architecture, automotive, defense, and medical replacements, among many others.
    Several smaller newspapers, including popular publications like Cumhuriyet, Milliyet and Habertürk are also based in Istanbul.[252] Istanbul also has long-running Armenian language newspapers, notably the dailies Marmara and Jamanak and the bilingual weekly Agos in Armenian and Turkish.[citation needed] A four-story, white flat-roofed building with two Turkish flags and a portrait on the exterior Headquarters of the state-run TRT's Istanbul radio operations Radio broadcasts in Istanbul date back to 1927, when Turkey's first radio transmission came from atop the Central Post Office in Eminönü.
    The BBC has a regional office in Istanbul, assisting its Turkish-language news operations, and the American news channel CNN established the Turkish-language CNN Türk there in 1999.[258] Education Further information: Education in Turkey A triumphal arch adjacent to a Turkish flag and in front of an open plaza Main entrance gate of Istanbul University, the city's oldest Turkish institution, established in 1453.
    The high quality of healthcare, especially in private hospitals, has contributed to a recent upsurge in medical tourism to Turkey (with a 40 percent increase between 2007 and 2008).[280] Laser eye surgery is particularly common among medical tourists, as Turkey is known for specializing in the procedure.[281] Transportation Main article: Public transport in Istanbul The suspension bridges on the Bosphorus strait 15 July Martyrs Bridge Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge Istanbul's motorways network are the O-1, O-2, O-3, O-4 and O-7.
    The Byzantine Empire was restored, albeit weakened, in 1261.[57] Constantinople's churches, defenses, and basic services were in disrepair,[58] and its population had dwindled to a hundred thousand from half a million during the 8th century.[e] After the reconquest of 1261, however, some of the city's monuments were restored, and some, like the two Deisis mosaics in Hagia Sofia and Kariye, were created.[citation needed] Various economic and military policies instituted by Andronikos II, such as the reduction of military forces, weakened the empire and left it vulnerable to attack.[59] In the mid-14th-century, the Ottoman Turks began a strategy of gradually taking smaller towns and cities, cutting off Constantinople's supply routes and strangling it slowly.[60] On 29 May 1453, after an eight-week siege (during which the last Roman emperor, Constantine XI, was killed), Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" captured Constantinople and declared it the new capital of the Ottoman Empire.
    The greatest rainfall recorded in a day is 227 millimeters (8.9 in), and the highest recorded snow cover is 80 centimeters (31 in).[113][114] Climate data for Istanbul (Sarıyer), 1929–2017 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 22.0 (71.6) 24.7 (76.5) 29.3 (84.7) 33.6 (92.5) 34.5 (94.1) 40.2 (104.4) 41.5 (106.7) 40.5 (104.9) 39.5 (103.1) 34.2 (93.6) 27.8 (82.0) 25.5 (77.9) 41.5 (106.7) Average high °C (°F) 8.4 (47.1) 9.0 (48.2) 10.9 (51.6) 15.4 (59.7) 20.0 (68.0) 24.6 (76.3) 26.6 (79.9) 26.8 (80.2) 23.7 (74.7) 19.1 (66.4) 14.8 (58.6) 10.8 (51.4) 17.5 (63.5) Daily mean °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 6.1 (43.0) 7.7 (45.9) 12.0 (53.6) 16.7 (62.1) 21.4 (70.5) 23.8 (74.8) 23.8 (74.8) 20.1 (68.2) 15.7 (60.3) 11.7 (53.1) 8.3 (46.9) 14.4 (57.9) Average low °C (°F) 3.1 (37.6) 3.1 (37.6) 4.2 (39.6) 7.6 (45.7) 12.1 (53.8) 16.5 (61.7) 19.4 (66.9) 20.1 (68.2) 16.8 (62.2) 12.9 (55.2) 8.9 (48.0) 5.5 (41.9) 10.8 (51.4) Record low °C (°F) −13.9 (7.0) −16.1 (3.0) −11.1 (12.0) −2.0 (28.4) 1.4 (34.5) 7.1 (44.8) 10.5 (50.9) 10.2 (50.4) 6.0 (42.8) 0.6 (33.1) −7.2 (19.0) −11.5 (11.3) −16.1 (3.0) Average precipitation mm (inches) 106.0 (4.17) 77.7 (3.06) 71.4 (2.81) 45.9 (1.81) 34.4 (1.35) 36.0 (1.42) 33.3 (1.31) 39.9 (1.57) 61.7 (2.43) 88.0 (3.46) 100.9 (3.97) 122.2 (4.81) 817.4 (32.18) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 17.3 15.2 13.8 10.3 8.0 6.2 4.3 5.0 7.6 11.2 13.0 17.1 129.0 Mean monthly sunshine hours 89.9 101.7 142.6 195.0 272.8 318.0 356.5 328.6 246.0 176.7 120.0 83.7 2,431.5 Mean daily sunshine hours 2.9 3.6 4.6 6.5 8.8 10.6 11.5 10.6 8.2 5.7 4.0 2.7 6.6 Average ultraviolet index 2 2 4 5 7 8 9 8 6 4 2 1 5 Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[115] and Weather Atlas[116] Climate data for Istanbul (Kireçburnu, Sarıyer), 1949–1999 Climate data for Istanbul (Bahçeköy, Sarıyer), 1949–1999 Climate data for Istanbul Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average sea temperature °C (°F) 8.4 (47.1) 7.7 (45.9) 8.3 (46.9) 10.2 (50.4) 15.5 (59.9) 21.3 (70.3) 24.6 (76.3) 24.9 (76.8) 22.8 (73.0) 18.4 (65.1) 13.8 (56.8) 10.5 (50.9) 15.5 (60.0) Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2 Source: Weather Atlas [116] Cityscape See also: Historic Areas of Istanbul and List of urban centers in Istanbul Çırağan Palace (1867) briefly served as the Ottoman Parliament building between 14 November 1909 and 19 January 1910, when it was damaged by fire.
    While Istanbul's Greek population was exempted from the 1923 population exchange with Greece, changes in tax status and the 1955 anti-Greek pogrom prompted thousands to leave.[182] Following Greek migration to the city for work in the 2010s, the Greek population rose to nearly 3,000 in 2019, still greatly diminished since 1919, when it stood at 350,000.[182] There are today 123,363 Armenians in Istanbul, down from a peak of 164,000 in 1913.[183] Istanbul became one of the world’s most important Jewish centers in the 16th and 17th century.[184] Romaniote and Ashkenazi communities existed in Istanbul before the conquest of Istanbul, but it was the arrival of Sephardic Jews that ushered a period of cultural flourishing.
    Processes and printers • Vat photopolymerization • Material jetting • Binder jetting • Powder bed fusion • Material extrusion • Directed energy deposition • Sheet lamination Schematic representation of the 3D printing technique known as Fused Filament Fabrication; a filament a) of plastic material is fed through a heated moving head b) that melts and extrudes it depositing it, layer after layer, in the desired shape c).
    Peter Zelinski, the editor-in-chief of Additive Manufacturing magazine, pointed out in 2017 that the terms are still often synonymous in casual usage but some manufacturing industry experts are trying to make a distinction whereby Additive Manufacturing comprises 3D printing plus other technologies or other aspects of a manufacturing process.Other terms that have been used as synonyms or hypernyms have included desktop manufacturing, rapid manufacturing (as the logical production-level successor to rapid prototyping), and on-demand manufacturing (which echoes on-demand printing in the 2D sense of printing).
    Completed in 1616, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque is popularly known as the Blue Mosque due to the blue İznik tiles which adorn its interior.[137] Among the oldest surviving examples of Ottoman architecture in Istanbul are the Anadoluhisarı and Rumelihisarı fortresses, which assisted the Ottomans during their siege of the city.[138] Over the next four centuries, the Ottomans made an indelible impression on the skyline of Istanbul, building towering mosques and ornate palaces.
    One of the key advantages of 3D printing is the ability to produce very complex shapes or geometries, and a prerequisite for producing any 3D printed part is a digital 3D model or a CAD file.The most-commonly used 3D-printing process (46% as of 2018) is a material extrusion technique called fused deposition modeling (FDM).
    Istanbul was occasionally a venue of the F1 Powerboat World Championship, with the last race on the Bosphorus strait on 12–13 August 2000.[247][unreliable source?] The last race of the Powerboat P1 World Championship on the Bosphorus took place on 19–21 June 2009.[248] Istanbul Sailing Club, established in 1952, hosts races and other sailing events on the waterways in and around Istanbul each year.[249][250] Media Entrance to an office building with an overhead sign saying 'Hürriyet' Established in 1948, Hürriyet is one of Turkey's most circulated newspapers.
    The largest non-Sunni Muslim group, accounting 10–20% of Turkey's population,[172] are the Alevis; a third of all Alevis in the country live in Istanbul.[173] Mystic movements, like Sufism, were officially banned after the establishment of the Turkish Republic, but they still boast numerous followers.[174] Istanbul is a migrant city.
    All four stadiums are elite Category 4 (formerly five-star) UEFA stadiums.[g] The Sinan Erdem Dome, among the largest indoor arenas in Europe, hosted the final of the 2010 FIBA World Championship, the 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships, as well as the 2011–12 Euroleague and 2016–17 EuroLeague Final Fours.[240] Prior to the completion of the Sinan Erdem Dome in 2010, Abdi İpekçi Arena was Istanbul's primary indoor arena, having hosted the finals of EuroBasket 2001.[241] Several other indoor arenas, including the Beşiktaş Akatlar Arena, have also been inaugurated since 2000, serving as the home courts of Istanbul's sports clubs.
    Since 2004, the municipal boundaries of Istanbul have been coincident with the boundaries of its province.[144] The city, considered capital of Istanbul Province, is administered by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (MMI), which oversees the 39 districts of the city-province.[b] The current city structure can be traced back to the Tanzimat period of reform in the 19th century, before which Islamic judges and imams led the city under the auspices of the Grand Vizier.
    3D printing has enabled on-demand manufacturing which has lead to lower stock levels and has shortened design and production cycles.Automotive enthusiasts all over the world are using 3D printed parts to restore old cars.
    Mirroring the executive committee at the municipal level, the Provincial Executive Committee includes a secretary-general and leaders of departments that advise the Provincial Parliament.[154][157] The Provincial Administration's duties are largely limited to the building and maintenance of schools, residences, government buildings, and roads, and the promotion of arts, culture, and nature conservation.[158] Ali Yerlikaya has been the Governor of Istanbul Province since 26 October 2018.[159] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Istanbul See also: Demographics of Turkey Historical populations Pre-Republic Year Pop.
    This is due to the city's role as Turkey's financial center, its large electorate and the fact that Erdoğan himself was elected Mayor of Istanbul in 1994.[citation needed] In the run-up to local elections in 2019, Erdoğan claimed 'if we fail in Istanbul, we will fail in Turkey'.[189] Historically, Istanbul has voted for the winning party in general elections since 1995.
    Each of these layers can be seen as a thinly sliced horizontal cross-section of the eventual object.3D printing is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing which is cutting out / hollowing out a piece of metal or plastic with for instance a milling machine.3D printing enables you to produce complex shapes using less material than traditional manufacturing methods.
    House Within 12 Hours Related Story Bathroom Units Developed by NTU in Record Time with Concrete 3D Printer Related Story Dutch Company Aectual 3D Prints Floor For Amsterdam Schiphol Airport Contour CraftingBehrokh Khoshnevis, pioneer of printing with concrete (also known as Contour Crafting), developed a method which leverages the power of additive manufacturing in construction.
    Istanbul-based Star TV was the first private television network to be established following the end of the TRT monopoly; Star TV and Show TV (also based in Istanbul) remain highly popular throughout the country, airing Turkish and American series.[257] Kanal D and ATV are other stations in Istanbul that offer a mix of news and series; NTV (partnered with U.S. media outlet MSNBC) and Sky Turk—both based in the city—are mainly just known for their news coverage in Turkish.
    As the process does each layer successively, it is quicker than most forms of 3D printing.Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)One of the fastest processes using Vat Photopolymerisation is called CLIP, short for Continuous Liquid Interface Production, developed by Carbon.Digital Light SynthesisThe heart of the CLIP process is Digital Light Synthesis technology.
    Adapting to this will require shifts in mindsets, policies, investments (especially in human capital), and quite possibly models of employment and distribution.”[212]Naomi Wu regards the usage of 3D printing in the Chinese classroom (where rote memorization is standard) to teach design principles and creativity as the most exciting recent development of the technology, and more generally regards 3D printing as being the next desktop publishing revolution.[213] Environmental change The growth of additive manufacturing could have a large impact on the environment.
    Akmerkez was awarded the titles of "Europe's best" and "World's best" shopping mall by the International Council of Shopping Centers in 1995 and 1996; Istanbul Cevahir has been one of the continent's largest since opening in 2005; Kanyon won the Cityscape Architectural Review Award in the Commercial Built category in 2006.[217] İstinye Park in İstinye and Zorlu Center near Levent are among the newest malls which include the stores of the world's top fashion brands.
    While the advantages of scale rest on cheap global transportation, the economies of scope share infrastructure costs (intangible and tangible productive resources), taking advantage of the capabilities of the fabrication tools.[205] And following Neil Gershenfeld[210] in that “some of the least developed parts of the world need some of the most advanced technologies,” Commons-based peer production and 3D printing may offer the necessary tools for thinking globally but acting locally in response to certain needs.Larry Summers wrote about the “devastating consequences” of 3D printing and other technologies (robots, artificial intelligence, etc.) for those who perform routine tasks.
    In 1995 the Istanbul Stock Exchange moved to İstinye, while numerous Turkish banks have moved to Levent and Maslak.[citation needed] Following the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1922), the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara abolished the Sultanate on 1 November 1922, and the last Ottoman Sultan, Mehmed VI, was declared persona non-grata.
    Unlike other methods of 3D printing it does not build models through depositing layers of material like fused deposition modelling and stereolithography, instead it creates objects using a series of 2D images projected onto a cylinder of resin.8082 It is notable for its ability to build an object much more quickly than other methods using resins and the ability to embed objects within the prints.
    Mehmed II also repaired the city's damaged infrastructure, including the whole water system, began to build the Grand Bazaar, and constructed Topkapı Palace, the sultan's official residence.[69] With the transfer of the capital from Edirne (formerly Adrianople) to Constantinople, the new state was declared as the successor and continuation of the Roman Empire.[70] The first Galata Bridge in the 19th century The Ottomans quickly transformed the city from a bastion of Christianity to a symbol of Islamic culture.
    Therefore, if a type of wheel is patented, printing, using, or selling such a wheel could be an infringement of the patent.150Copyright covers an expression151 in a tangible, fixed medium and often lasts for the life of the author plus 70 years thereafter.152 If someone makes a statue, they may have a copyright mark on the appearance of that statue, so if someone sees that statue, they cannot then distribute designs to print an identical or similar statue.When a feature has both artistic (copyrightable) and functional (patentable) merits, when the question has appeared in US court, the courts have often held the feature is not copyrightable unless it can be separated from the functional aspects of the item.152 In other countries the law and the courts may apply a different approach allowing, for example, the design of a useful device to be registered (as a whole) as an industrial design on the understanding that, in case of unauthorized copying, only the non-functional features may be claimed under design law whereas any technical features could only be claimed if covered by a valid patent.
    The confluence of the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus, and the Golden Horn at the heart of present-day Istanbul has deterred attacking forces for thousands of years and remains a prominent feature of the city's landscape.[49] Following the model of Rome, the historic peninsula is said to be characterized by seven hills, each topped by imperial mosques.
    Abdi İpekçi Street in Nişantaşı and Bağdat Avenue on the Anatolian side of the city have evolved into high-end shopping districts.[219][220] A large tree decorated under the night sky in red and green and surrounded by spotlights, city lights, and mid-rise buildings New Year's Eve decorations in Nişantaşı shopping district Istanbul is known for its historic seafood restaurants.
    Your sliced 3D model is now ready to be 3D printed layer by layer.3D Printing IndustryAdoption of 3D printing has reached critical mass as those who have yet to integrate additive manufacturing somewhere in their supply chain are now part of an ever-shrinking minority.
    Control of this transmission, and other radio stations established in the following decades, ultimately came under the state-run Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT), which held a monopoly on radio and television broadcasts between its founding in 1964 and 1990.[254] Today, TRT runs four national radio stations; these stations have transmitters across the country so each can reach over 90 percent of the country's population, but only Radio 2 is based in Istanbul.
    Social change Street sign in Windhoek, Namibia, advertising 3D printing, July 2018 Since the 1950s, a number of writers and social commentators have speculated in some depth about the social and cultural changes that might result from the advent of commercially affordable additive manufacturing technology.[198] In recent years, 3D printing is creating significant impact in the humanitarian and development sector.
    The United States Air Force has begun to work with 3D printers, and the Israeli Air Force has also purchased a 3D printer to print spare parts.107 • In 2017, GE Aviation revealed that it had used design for additive manufacturing to create a helicopter engine with 16 parts instead of 900, with great potential impact on reducing the complexity of supply chains.108 AM’s impact on firearms involves two dimensions: new manufacturing methods for established companies, and new possibilities for the making of do-it-yourself firearms.
    All scheduled commercial passenger flights were transferred from Istanbul Atatürk Airport to Istanbul Airport on April 6, 2019, following the closure of Istanbul Atatürk Airport for scheduled passenger flights.[314] The IATA airport code IST was also transferred to the new airport.[315] Once all phases are completed in 2025, the airport will be able to accommodate 200 million passengers a year.[316] Istanbul Atatürk Airport (left), which handled 63.7 million passengers in 2017,[317] was the city's primary airport before the opening of the new Istanbul Airport (right) in 2018.
    The largest is the new Istanbul Airport, opened in 2018 in the Arnavutköy district to the northwest of the city center, on the European side, near the Black Sea coast.
    The city straddles the Bosphorus, and lies in both Europe and Asia, with a population of over 15 million residents.[4] Istanbul is the largest city in Europe,[c] and the world's fifteenth-largest city.
    Related Story 3 Ways 3D Printing is Revolutionizing Digital Dentistry Bio-printingAs of the early two-thousands 3D printing technology has been studied by biotech firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications where organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques.
    Neolithic artifacts, uncovered by archeologists at the beginning of the 21st century, indicate that Istanbul's historic peninsula was settled as far back as the 6th millennium BCE.[26] That early settlement, important in the spread of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East to Europe, lasted for almost a millennium before being inundated by rising water levels.[27][28][29][30] The first human settlement on the Asian side, the Fikirtepe mound, is from the Copper Age period, with artifacts dating from 5500 to 3500 BCE,[31] On the European side, near the point of the peninsula (Sarayburnu), there was a Thracian settlement during the early 1st millennium BCE.
    One-fifth of all district council members, including the district mayors, also represent their districts in the Municipal Council.[151] All members of the district councils and the Municipal Council, including the metropolitan mayor, are elected to five-year terms.[155] Representing the Republican People's Party, Ekrem İmamoğlu has been the Mayor of Istanbul since 27 June 2019.[156] With the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Istanbul Province having equivalent jurisdictions, few responsibilities remain for the provincial government.
    Main article: Multi-material 3D printing A drawback of many existing 3D printing technologies is that they only allow one material to be printed at a time, limiting many potential applications which require the integration of different materials in the same object.
    Istanbul's foreign population with a residence permit increased dramatically, from 43,000 in 2007[168] to 856,377 in 2019.[169][170] Religious and ethnic groups Blue Mosque in Istanbul State aid contributes to the maintenance of the 234 churches in the city.[171] Pictured: Hagia Triada Hemdat Israel Synagogue is one of the 34 active synagogues in the city.[171] Ambox current red.svg This section needs to be updated.
    The hearing aid and dental industries are expected to be the biggest area of future development using the custom 3D printing technology.120In March 2014, surgeons in Swansea used 3D printed parts to rebuild the face of a motorcyclist who had been seriously injured in a road accident.
    However less expensive printers can be used to make a mold, which is then used to make metal parts.60ISO/ASTM52900-15 defines seven categories of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes within its meaning: binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination, and vat photopolymerization.
    Personal protective equipment has been found to be the least desirable control method with a recommendation that it only be used to add further protection in combination with approved emissions protection.180 Health regulation Although no occupational exposure limits specific to 3D printer emissions exist, certain source materials used in 3D printing, such as carbon nanofiber and carbon nanotubes, have established occupational exposure limits at the nanoparticle size.180193As of March 2018, the US Government has set 3D printer emission standards for only a limited number of compounds.
    With a huge potential global market to amortize the upfront fixed costs of design and testing, the incentives to invest [in digital technologies] are compelling.”[212]Spence believes that, unlike prior digital technologies, which drove firms to deploy underutilized pools of valuable labor around the world, the motivating force in the current wave of digital technologies “is cost reduction via the replacement of labor.” For example, as the cost of 3D printing technology declines, it is “easy to imagine” that production may become “extremely” local and customized.
    Istanbul Atatürk Airport, located 24 kilometers (15 mi) west of the city center, on the European side, near the Marmara Sea coast, was formerly the city's largest airport.
    Gun legislation and administration Main article: 3D printed firearms The US Department of Homeland Security and the Joint Regional Intelligence Center released a memo stating that “significant advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing capabilities, availability of free digital 3D printable files for firearms components, and difficulty regulating file sharing may present public safety risks from unqualified gun seekers who obtain or manufacture 3D printed guns” and that “proposed legislation to ban 3D printing of weapons may deter, but cannot completely prevent, their production.
    Most nationwide newspapers are based in Istanbul, with simultaneous Ankara and İzmir editions.[252] Hürriyet, Sabah, Posta and Sözcü, the country's top four papers, are all headquartered in Istanbul, boasting more than 275,000 weekly sales each.[253] Hürriyet's English-language edition, Hürriyet Daily News, has been printed since 1961, but the English-language Daily Sabah, first published by Sabah in 2014, has overtaken it in circulation.
    The effects strongly depend on the orientation of a part surface inside the building process.45Some printable polymers such as ABS, allow the surface finish to be smoothed and improved using chemical vapor processes46 based on acetone or similar solvents.Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials in the course of constructing parts.
    The forest originally supplied water to the city and remnants of reservoirs used during Byzantine and Ottoman times survive.[132][133] Panoramic view of Istanbul from the confluence of the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmara.
    3D printing has entered the world of clothing, with fashion designers experimenting with 3D-printed bikinis, shoes, and dresses.97 In commercial production Nike is using 3D printing to prototype and manufacture the 2012 Vapor Laser Talon football shoe for players of American football, and New Balance is 3D manufacturing custom-fit shoes for athletes.
    The high population growth mirrors an urbanization trend across the country, as the second and third fastest-growing OECD metropolises are the Turkish cities of Izmir and Ankara.[16] Istanbul experienced especially rapid growth during the second half of the 20th century, with its population increasing tenfold between 1950 and 2000.[167] This growth was fueled by internal and international migration.
    Along İstiklal Avenue is the Çiçek Pasajı, now home to winehouses (known as meyhanes), pubs, and restaurants.[223] İstiklal Avenue, originally known for its taverns, has shifted toward shopping, but the nearby Nevizade Street is still lined with winehouses and pubs.[224][225] Some other neighborhoods around İstiklal Avenue have been revamped to cater to Beyoğlu's nightlife, with formerly commercial streets now lined with pubs, cafes, and restaurants playing live music.[226] Other focal points for Istanbul's nightlife include Nişantaşı, Ortaköy, Bebek, and Kadıköy.[227] Sports See also: List of sport facilities in Istanbul 1.
    Areas around İstiklal Avenue were filled with grand European embassies and rows of buildings in Neoclassical, Renaissance Revival and Art Nouveau styles, which went on to influence the architecture of a variety of structures in Beyoğlu—including churches, stores, and theaters—and official buildings such as Dolmabahçe Palace.[143] Administration Main articles: List of districts of Istanbul and List of neighbourhoods of Istanbul A map depicting districts, squeezed between two bodies of water; farther districts are very large compared to those clustered in the center.
    A 2kg titanium part would generally require a 30kg block of titanium to machine it from, generating 28kg of waste, but 3D printing the same part requires only 6kg of titanium wire.Boeing has been using 3D printed parts in their airplanes for a long time.
    Another method consists of an inkjet 3D printing system, which creates the model one layer at a time by spreading a layer of powder (plaster, or resins) and printing a binder in the cross-section of the part using an inkjet-like process.
    Galatasaray, for example, offers instruction in French; other Anatolian High Schools primarily teach in English or German alongside Turkish.[261][262][better source needed] The city also has foreign high schools, such as Liceo Italiano, that were established in the 19th century to educate foreigners.[263][better source needed] Kuleli Military High School, along the shores of the Bosphorus in Çengelköy, and Turkish Naval High School, on one of the Princes' Islands, were military high schools, complemented by three military academies—the Turkish Air Force, Turkish Military, and Turkish Naval Academies.
    Built of porphyry, 35 m (115 ft) high, it came from Heliopolis, erected in 330 CE to inaugurate the new Byzantine capital.[135] Originally part of a sculpture of Emperor Constantine dressed as Apollo, the column first stood at the entrance to the Forum of Constantine.[135] Hagia Sophia, topped by a dome 31 meters (102 ft) in diameter over a square space defined by four arches, is the pinnacle of the Byzantine architecture.[136] Hagia Sophia stood as the world's largest cathedral in the world until it was converted into a mosque in the 15th century.[136] The minarets date from that period.[136] Over the next four centuries, the Ottomans transformed of Istanbul’s urban landscape with a vast building scheme building towering mosques and ornate palaces.
    The Cağaloğlu street on which the newspaper was printed, Bâb-ı Âli Street, rapidly became the center of Turkish print media, alongside Beyoğlu across the Golden Horn.[251] Istanbul now has a wide variety of periodicals.
    İstanbul district Municipalities 2019 Turkish local elections AK Party (People's Alliance) 24 / 39 CHP (Nation Alliance) 14 / 39 MHP (People's Alliance) 1 / 39 Members of Parliament for İstanbul Turkish parliamentary election, 2018 AK Party (People's Alliance) 43 / 98 CHP (Nation Alliance) 27 / 98 HDP (No alliance) 12 / 98 İYİ (Nation Alliance) 8 / 98 MHP (People's Alliance) 8 / 98 Politically, Istanbul is seen as the most important administrative region in Turkey.
    It served as an imperial capital for almost sixteen centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204), Latin (1204–1261), Byzantine (1261–1453), and Ottoman (1453–1922) empires.[10] It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before its transformation to an Islamic stronghold following the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE.[11] In 1923, after the Turkish War of Independence, Ankara replaced the city as the capital of the newly formed Republic of Turkey.
    Related Story 3D Printing in Education While additive manufacturing-specific degrees are a fairly new advent, universities have long been using 3D printers in other disciplines.
    For example: • In early 2014, Swedish supercar manufacturer Koenigsegg announced the One:1, a supercar that utilizes many components that were 3D printed.101 Urbee is the name of the first car in the world car mounted using the technology 3D printing (its bodywork and car windows were “printed”).
    In May 2018, 3D printing has been used for the kidney transplant to save a three-year-old boy.122 As of 2012, 3D bio-printing technology has been studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications in which organs and body parts are built using inkjet printing techniques.
    İmamoğlu won the vote with 48.77% of the vote, against Yıldırım's 48.61%. Similar trends and electoral successes for the opposition were also replicated in Ankara, Izmir, Antalya, Mersin, Adana and other metropolitan areas of Turkey.[citation needed] Administratively, Istanbul is divided into 39 districts, more than any other province in Turkey.
    Web sites associated with home 3D printing tended to include backscratchers, coat hooks, door knobs, etc.1353D printing, and open source 3D printers in particular, are the latest technology making inroads into the classroom.136137138139 Some authors have claimed that 3D printers offer an unprecedented “revolution” in STEM education.140141 The evidence for such claims comes from both the low-cost ability for rapid prototyping in the classroom by students, but also the fabrication of low-cost high-quality scientific equipment from open hardware designs forming open-source labs.
    And the trends are all in the wrong direction, particularly for the less skilled, as the capacity of capital embodying artificial intelligence to replace white-collar as well as blue-collar work will increase rapidly in the years ahead.” Summers recommends more vigorous cooperative efforts to address the “myriad devices” (e.g., tax havens, bank secrecy, money laundering, and regulatory arbitrage) enabling the holders of great wealth to “a paying” income and estate taxes, and to make it more difficult to accumulate great fortunes without requiring “great social contributions” in return, including: more vigorous enforcement of anti-monopoly laws, reductions in “excessive” protection for intellectual property, greater encouragement of profit-sharing schemes that may benefit workers and give them a stake in wealth accumulation, strengthening of collective bargaining arrangements, improvements in corporate governance, strengthening of financial regulation to eliminate subsidies to financial activity, easing of land-use restrictions that may cause the real estate of the rich to keep rising in value, better training for young people and retraining for displaced workers, and increased public and private investment in infrastructure development—e.g., in energy production and transportation.[211]Michael Spence wrote that “Now comes a … powerful, wave of digital technology that is replacing labor in increasingly complex tasks.
    Hull’s contribution was the STL (Stereolithography) file format and the digital slicing and infill strategies common to many processes today.In 1986, Charles “Chuck” Hull was granted a patent for his system, and his company, 3D Systems Corporation released the first commercial 3D printer, the SLA-1.The technology used by most 3D printers to date—especially hobbyist and consumer-oriented models—is fused deposition modeling, a special application of plastic extrusion, developed in 1988 by S.
    Since precipitation in summer months ranges from 20 to 65 mm (1 to 3 in), depending on location, the city cannot be classified as solely Mediterranean or humid subtropical.[97][98][99] Due to its size, diverse topography, maritime location and most importantly having a coastline to two different bodies of water to the north and south, Istanbul exhibits microclimates.
    However, there is not much jurisprudence to say how these laws will apply if 3D printers become mainstream and individuals or hobbyist communities begin manufacturing items for personal use, for non-profit distribution, or for sale.Any of the mentioned legal regimes may prohibit the distribution of the designs used in 3D printing, or the distribution or sale of the printed item.
    3D printing and additive manufacturing reflect that the technologies share the theme of material addition or joining throughout a 3D work envelope under automated control.
    Istanbul's districts extend far from the city center, along the full length of the Bosphorus (with the Black Sea at the top and the Sea of Marmara at the bottom of the map).
    3D printed models created with CAD result in reduced errors and can be corrected before printing, allowing verification in the design of the object before it is printed.32 The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting.
    Istanbul İstanbul Megacity See caption Clockwise from top: the Golden Horn between Karaköy and Sarayburnu within the historic areas; Maiden's Tower; a nostalgic tram on İstiklal Avenue; Levent business district with Dolmabahçe Palace; Ortaköy Mosque in front of the Bosphorus Bridge; and Hagia Sophia.
    In this process, layers of living cells are deposited onto a gel medium or sugar matrix and slowly built up to form three-dimensional structures including vascular systems.123 Recently, a heart-on-chip has been created which matches properties of cells.124In 3D printing, computer-simulated microstructures are commonly used to fabricate objects with spatially varying properties.
    Others cure a photo-reactive resin with a UV laser (or another similar light source) layer by layer.To be more precise: since 2010, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) group “ASTM F42 – Additive Manufacturing”, developed a set of standards that classify the Additive Manufacturing processes into 7 categories according to Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies.
    These post-processing activities can include chemical baths, sanding, polishing, or vapor exposure to refine surface finish, as well as general subtractive manufacturing techniques such as drilling, milling, or turning to modify the printed geometry.191 Any technique that removes material from the printed part has the potential to generate particles that can be inhaled or cause eye injury if proper personal protective equipment is not used, such as respirators or safety glasses.
    A view of Topkapı Palace from across the Golden Horn, with the Prince Islands in the background The Fatih district, which was named after Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror (Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmed), corresponds to what was, until the Ottoman conquest in 1453, the whole of the city of Constantinople (today is the capital district and called the historic peninsula of Istanbul) on the southern shore of the Golden Horn, across the medieval Genoese citadel of Galata on the northern shore.
    As technology matured, several authors had begun to speculate that 3D printing could aid in sustainable development in the developing world.29In 2012, Filabot developed a system for closing the loop30 with plastic and allows for any FDM or FFF 3D printer to be able to print with a wider range of plastics.
    Architecture See also: Architecture of Istanbul, Ottoman architecture, and Architecture of Turkey Interior facade of the Gate of the Sultan (Saltanat Kapısı) located on Dolmabahçe Avenue, one of the main entrances of Dolmabahçe Palace.
    For this kind of technology additional vertical support structures d) are needed to sustain overhanging parts A timelapse video of a robot model being printed using FDM The main differences between processes are in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used.
    The state-run Radio 3, although based in Ankara, also features English-language popular music, and English-language news programming is provided on NTV Radyo (102.8 FM).[255] TRT-Children is the only TRT television station based in Istanbul.[256] Istanbul is home to the headquarters of several Turkish stations and regional headquarters of international media outlets.
    ±% p.a. 1925 881,000 — 1927 691,000 −11.44% 1935 740,800 +0.87% 1940 793,900 +1.39% 1945 845,300 +1.26% 1950 983,000 +3.06% 1960 1,459,500 +4.03% 1965 1,743,000 +3.61% 1970 2,132,400 +4.12% 1975 2,547,400 +3.62% 1980 2,853,500 +2.30% 1985 5,494,900 +14.00% 1990 6,620,200 +3.80% 1994 7,615,500 +3.56% 1997 8,260,400 +2.75% 2000 8,831,800 +2.25% 2007 11,174,200 +3.42% 2015 14,657,434 +3.45% 2016 14,804,116 +1.00% 2017 15,029,231 +1.52% 2018 15,067,724 +0.26% 2019 15,519,267 +3.00% Sources: Jan Lahmeyer 2004,Chandler 1987, Morris 2010,Turan 2010 [160] Pre-Republic figures estimated[e] Throughout most of its history, Istanbul has ranked among the largest cities in the world.
    The O-2, O-3, and O-4 are part of European route E80 (the Trans-European Motorway) between Portugal and the Iran–Turkey border.[284] In 2011, the first and second bridges on the Bosphorus carried 400,000 vehicles each day.[285] The O-7[286] or Kuzey Marmara Otoyolu, is a motorway that bypass Istanbul to the north.
    Gülhane Park and Yıldız Park were originally included within the grounds of two of Istanbul's palaces—Topkapı Palace and Yıldız Palace—but they were repurposed as public parks in the early decades of the Turkish Republic.[130] Another park, Fethi Paşa Korusu, is on a hillside adjacent to the Bosphorus Bridge in Anatolia, opposite Yıldız Palace in Europe.
    3D printing enables students to materialize their ideas in a fast and affordable way.Programs such as Create Education Project enable schools to integrate additive manufacturing technologies into their curriculum for essentially no cost.
    Following Turkey’s support for the Arab Spring, Istanbul emerged as a hub for dissidents from across the Arab world, including former presidential candidates from Egypt, Kuwaiti MPs, and former ministers from Jordan, Saudi Arabia (including Jamal Khashoggi), Syria, and Yemen.[177][178][179] With almost two million residents claiming full or partial Kurdish ancestry, Kurds form the second largest ethnic minority in Istanbul.
    3D scanning is a process of collecting digital data on the shape and appearance of a real object, creating a digital model based on it.CAD models can be saved in the stereolithography file format (STL), a de facto CAD file format for additive manufacturing that stores data based on triangulations of the surface of CAD models.
    Related Story Moon Dust Printing Uses Laser Melting For Construction FoodAdditive manufacturing invaded the food industry long time ago.
    Hours later, the sultan rode to the Hagia Sophia and summoned an imam to proclaim the Islamic creed, converting the grand cathedral into an imperial mosque due to the city's refusal to surrender peacefully.[61] Mehmed declared himself as the new "Kaysar-i Rûm" (the Ottoman Turkish equivalent of Caesar of Rome) and the Ottoman state was reorganized into an empire.[62] Ottoman Empire and Turkish Republic eras Following the conquest of Constantinople[f], Mehmed II immediately set out to revitalize the city.
    Acumen Research and Consulting forecasts the global 3D printing market to reach $41 billion by 2026.As it evolves, 3D printing technology is destined to transform almost every major industry and change the way we live, work, and play in the future.Examples of 3D Printing3D printing encompasses many forms of technologies and materials as 3D printing is being used in almost all industries you could think of.
    Jones laid out the concept of 3D printing in his regular column Ariadne in the journal New Scientist 1980s Early additive manufacturing equipment and materials were developed in the 1980s.
    Their prevalence has increased significantly over the last decade, as the percentage of outpatients using private hospitals increased from 6 percent to 23 percent between 2005 and 2009.[252][278] Many of these private hospitals, as well as some of the public hospitals, are equipped with high-tech equipment, including MRI machines, or associated with medical research centers.[279] Turkey has more hospitals accredited by the U.S.-based Joint Commission than any other country in the world, with most concentrated in its big cities.
    Agile tooling is the use of modular means to design tooling that is produced by additive manufacturing or 3D printing methods to enable quick prototyping and responses to tooling and fixture needs.
    • In 2014, Local Motors debuted Strati, a functioning vehicle that was entirely 3D Printed using ABS plastic and carbon fiber, except the powertrain.105 In May 2015 Airbus announced that its new Airbus A350 XWB included over 1000 components manufactured by 3D printing.106 • In 2015, a Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon fighter jet flew with printed parts.
    Istanbul's main bus station is the largest in Europe, with a daily capacity of 15,000 buses and 600,000 passengers, serving destinations as distant as Frankfurt.[312][313] Istanbul had three large international airports, two of which are currently in active service for commercial passenger flights.
    Digital Light Synthesis produces consistent and predictable mechanical properties, creating parts that are truly isotropic.Material JettingIn this process, material is applied in droplets through a small diameter nozzle, similar to the way a common inkjet paper printer works, but it is applied layer-by-layer to a build platform making a 3D object and then hardened by UV light.
    The Grand Bazaar, in operation since 1461, is among the world's oldest and largest covered markets.[216][217] Mahmutpasha Bazaar is an open-air market extending between the Grand Bazaar and the Egyptian Bazaar, which has been Istanbul's major spice market since 1660.
    With more and more applications of multi-material 3D printing, the costs of daily life and high technology development will become inevitably lower.Metallographic materials of 3D printing is also being researched.55 By classifying each material, CIMP-3D can systematically perform 3D printing with multiple materials.
    The printers can deposit 30 million drops per second to achieve ultra fast and accurate production, and multiple agents can be used on a single part, meaning parts can have different colors and mechanical properties down to the voxel (a 3D pixel).Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)SLS uses a high power laser to fuse small particles of plastic, ceramic or glass powders into a mass that has the desired three dimensional shape.
    This revolution is spreading to the production of goods, where robots and 3D printing are displacing labor.” In his view, the vast majority of the cost of digital technologies comes at the start, in the design of hardware (e.g. 3D printers) and, more important, in creating the software that enables machines to carry out various tasks.
    Where 3D printing was only suitable for prototyping and one-off manufacturing in the early stages, it is now rapidly transforming into a production technology.Most of the current demand for 3D printing is industrial in nature.
    This G-code file can then be printed with 3D printing client software (which loads the G-code, and uses it to instruct the 3D printer during the 3D printing process).Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X–Y resolution in dots per inch (dpi) or micrometers (µm).
    Legal aspects Intellectual property See also: Free hardware 3D printing has existed for decades within certain manufacturing industries where many legal regimes, including patents, industrial design rights, copyrights, and trademarks may apply.
    Among Turkey's first private stations, and the first featuring foreign popular music, was Istanbul's Metro FM (97.2 FM).
    The term 3D printing originally referred to a powder bed process employing standard and custom inkjet print heads, developed at MIT by Emanuel Sachs in 1993 and commercialized by Soligen Technologies, Extrude Hone Corporation, and Z Corporation.
    The following example marks a significant 3D printing manufacturing milestone: GE Aviation has 3D printed 30,000 Cobalt-chrome fuel nozzles for its LEAP aircraft engines.
    By 500 CE, Constantinople had somewhere between 400,000 and 500,000 people, edging out its predecessor, Rome, for world's largest city.[162] Constantinople jostled with other major historical cities, such as Baghdad, Chang'an, Kaifeng and Merv for the position of world's most populous city until the 12th century.
    Istanbul has active nightlife and historic taverns, a signature characteristic of the city for centuries if not millennia.
    The deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915 was among the major events which marked the start of the Armenian Genocide during WWI.[79] Due to Ottoman and Turkish policies of Turkification and ethnic cleansing, the city's Christian population declined from 450,000 to 240,000 between 1914 and 1927.[80] The Armistice of Mudros was signed on 30 October 1918 and the Allies occupied Constantinople on 13 November 1918.
    A new process for the GMAW 3D printing allows for substrate surface modifications to remove aluminum47 or steel.48 Materials Traditionally, 3D Printing focused on polymers for printing, due to the ease of manufacturing and handling polymeric materials.
    Three ancient monuments remain, however.[135] The most ancient is the Egyptian Obelisk.[135] Built of red granite, 31 m (100 ft) high, it came from the Temple of Karnak at Luxor, erected in 1500 BC.[135] It was brought to Istanbul in AD 357 by the order of Constantine II and put up in the Hippodrome.[135] When re-erected, the Egyptian Obelisk was mounted on a decorative base, with a statue that depicted Theodosius I and his courtiers.[135] Next in age is the Serpentine Column, from 479 BC.[135] It was brought from Delphi in the time of Augustus and also erected in the Hippodrome.[135] The slightly smaller Column of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, was another of Augustus’s trophies.
    The completed section of highway crosses the Bosphorus Strait via the Yavuz Sultan Selim (Third Bosphorus) Bridge, entered service on 26 August 2016.[287] The O-7 motorway connects Istanbul Atatürk Airport with Istanbul Airport.

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